Monday, June 3, 2013

Haryana At A Glance

haryana political map

One of the wealthiest states of India, Haryana is the state in the northern part, bordered by Punjab and Himachal Pradesh in the north, Rajasthan in the west and south and Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand in the east. The patchwork landscape holds immense historical significance as it was an important part in the Indus Valley Civilization, flourishing on the banks of lost Sarasvati river. Kurukshetra is the famous place where the battle of Mahabharata was fought. There were other battles fought in the land that shaped the history of India. The overwhelming industrial growth in last 2 decades has made Haryana one of the most economically developed regions in South Asia. Haryana has India's largest manufacturing unit of passenger cars, two wheelers and tractors and several well known automobile company's workshops are located in the Gurgaon city.

The state is bounded by the Shivalik Hills, Aravali mountains and Yamuna river in the north, west and the east. The main profession of Haryanavi people is agriculture and wheat and dairy production are the primary activities. Faridabad, Sonepat, Panipat and Ambala are the important industrial centers in the state. In the recent years Guragaon has become one of the fastest growing industrial city in India. Major ethnic group is Jat people and dominate the land. Other groups are Ahirs, Punjabis, Gujjars, Agarwals, Rors, Brahmins, Rajputs and Sainis.

History of Haryana

Haryana holds an important place in Indian mythology as well as history. In Indian mythology Manu treatise is considered the first law book (Dharmashashtra) where Haryana was known as Brahmavart where Brahmanical religion and social system spread out. In the Epic Mahabharata, Kurukshetra was the battlefield between Kauravas and Pandavas. Haryana served as a geographical corridor to Delhi, which was invaded time to time by several invaders. Therefore, most of the battles were fought in the plains of Haryana. The first major invasion was at the end of 14th century when Mongolian ferocious ruler Timur invaded Delhi through Haryana. In 1526, the invading Mughals defeated the armies of the ruling Lodi dynasty at the Battle of Panipat. Haryana was ruled by Maratha at the end of mid 18th century and lastly ended by Afghan under Ahmed Shah Abdali in the third battle of Panipat in 1761.

Geography & Climate

Haryana is located between 27°37' to 30°35' N latitude and between 74°28' and 77°36' E longitude. Haryana is a plain land though some of the places are located as high as 1200 meters above sea level. An area of 1,553 km2 is covered by forest. The geography of Haryana is divided into four parts-

The Yamuna-Ghaggar plain forming the largest part of the state
The Shivalik Hills to the northeast
Semi-desert sandy plain to the southwest
The Aravalli Range in the south

The climate is typical of northern regions of India where summers are extreme hot, reaches a high of 50 degree Celsius and chilled during the winters to a low of 1 degree celsius. The hottest months are May and June and the coldest being December and January. Rainfall is also varied in the state. Monsoon session experiences 80 percent of rainfall in the month of July-September and rarely causes local flooding.


According to 2001 census, the population of Haryana is 21,144,000 with 11,364,000 males and 9,781,000 females. The alarming sex ratio of the state is the major concern of the government. Major ethnic group is the Jat and other groups are Ahirs, Punjabis, Gujjars, Agarwals, Rors, Brahmins, Rajputs and Sainis. Hindus are majority in Haryana and are about 90% of the population, Sikhs 6.2%, Muslims 4.05% and Christians 0.10%. The backbone of local economy is agriculture and most of the people are engaged in it.

Heritage & Culture of Haryana

The rich and colorful culture of Haryana dates back to the Vedic times. The ancient methods and customs of meditation, yoga and Vedic Mantras are still practiced by the masses. Haryana is also a land of festivals. There are different types of dances and creative arts that are performed by the people.

The people of Haryana have preserved their old religious and social traditions and they celebrate their festivals, social ceremonies with much pomp and glory. Their popular art are Saangs, dramas, ballads and songs, which they have integrated in their lifestyle. The common language is Haryanavi and Punjabi is the second official language of Haryana. The most striking feature of language is its language itself; the manner its spoken. It sounds rude and unpolished but straightforward and full of humor. With rapid urbanization and industrial growth in the state and above all the good connection with Delhi, the culture of Haryana is turning a modern hue.

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